Introduction to copper concentrate knowledge

1 Overview

There are natural minerals containing copper more than 200 kinds, of which only a dozen economic value, is the most common copper copper sulfide, for example: chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), chalcocite ((Cu2S)), copper blue (of CuS ), etc. Currently, 80% of the world's copper comes from such ores. After the ore is crushed and ball milled, the copper concentrate is used to separate and capture copper-containing minerals by flotation of the agent, so that the grade is greatly improved and used for smelting copper. A few copper mines (such as the Daye Tonglushan Mine in Hubei) are often mixed with malachite. This is a copper-bearing carbonate mineral with a beautiful color. It can be made into ornaments such as ornaments or necklaces. It is a rare gemstone and is very popular among people.

China has a long history of mining and smelting copper mines, dating back to the Spring and Autumn Period, dating back more than 2,700 years. Daye Nonferrous metal mining company Tonglushan found in the ruins of ancient copper mine production process, archaeological excavations have been cleared from the Western Zhou Dynasty to the Western Han Dynasty more than a thousand

During the year, there were hundreds of shafts, inclined wells, blind wells with different structures and different support methods, more than 100 flat roads, and a batch of copper-blasting blast furnaces in the early spring and autumn, along with a large number of mining and mineral processing. The smelting production tools accumulate more than 400,000 tons of ancient refining slag on the surface of nearly 2 square kilometers next to the site. The slag sample analysis has a copper content of less than 0.7%, which indicates the scale and superb technology of ancient China. Level.

Modernization of China's large copper mining and milling enterprises: Jiangxi Copper Co., Ltd., Daye Nonferrous Metals Company (Hubei), Tongling Nonferrous Metals Company (Jiangsu), white silver Nonferrous Metals Company (Gansu), Zhongtiaoshan Nonferrous Metals Company ( Shanxi) and Yunnan Smelter, Shenyang Smelter, Huludao Zinc Plant, etc. Due to the limited grade and quantity of self-harvested copper mines, the demand for imported copper concentrates is increasing. The copper concentrate production countries that have traded with China are: Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Indonesia, Australia, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, South Africa, Poland, Peru, Chile, Mexico, the United States, Canada, etc.

2. Characteristics

Imported copper sulfide concentrates are generally dark green to yellowish green, also grayish black, with a little blue powder mixed with it. Copper concentrate is a flotation product with a fine particle size. The near-dry copper concentrate is easy to be dusted during storage and transportation, and is not suitable for ocean transportation. Therefore, the production process often maintains about 10% of water. When the temperature is high, the copper sulfide concentrate is easily oxidized, especially when the ocean transportation time is long, or when the goods are handed over in summer, the oxidation phenomenon is more serious. When accepting such copper concentrates, the copper grade is often lowered and the receiving weight is increased. It is for this reason that copper concentrate is in the process of trade transfer, is the total metal

Measured by quantity. Samples for quality analysis, should be sealed in an aluminum foil pouch for storage. Experiments have shown that samples stored in paper bags or polyethylene bags are stored in a desiccator for one month, and the percentage of copper is significantly reduced. As the storage time is extended, the copper grade will continue to decrease, and it will be sealed in aluminum foil bags. The sample did not change significantly in copper content even after half a year of storage.

From the perspective of smelting, the content of sulfur and iron in copper concentrate is higher. Generally, the ratio of copper to sulfur is about 1:1, Fe>20%, Si<10%. This mine is slag in the reverberatory furnace. Both performance and flow performance are good. The lower the content of impurity elements Cr, Hg, Pb, Zn, Bi, As, F, Cl, etc., the better, mainly to meet the requirements of smelting and environmental protection.

3. Use

Copper concentrate is used for copper smelting. The "horn horn copper" obtained from ore smelting is blister copper, and electrolytic copper having high purity can be obtained by electrolysis. In the process of smelting and electrolysis, gold and silver can also be recovered from anode mud, electrolyte, flue ash and tail gas, respectively.

Palladium , platinum , cadmium , lead , zinc, antimony , selenium , tellurium , sulfur and other elements or compounds, waste heat can generate electricity. Comprehensive utilization can not only reduce the pollution of waste liquid, waste residue and waste gas to the environment and air, but also turn waste into treasure and improve the utilization value of copper concentrate.

4. Chemical composition

The main components of copper sulfide concentrate are copper, iron and sulfur. The main precious metals are gold and silver. Other components include silicon, calcium, magnesium , lead, zinc, aluminum, manganese , antimony , bismuth, fluorine and chlorine. Different from the level of mineral processing, the quality varies greatly.

5. Import specifications

The imported copper concentrate is based on the pure metal amount of copper, gold and silver in the transaction batch. The general copper content is 25~45%, the gold content is 1~35g/t, and the silver content is in the range of 30-350g/t. When the gold content is less than 1g/t and the silver content is less than 30g/t, the gold and silver binomials are not priced. After years of importing copper concentrates, considering the price and recovery rate, companies like to import copper concentrates with a copper content of around 30% and gold and silver content in the non-price range. The elements F, Cl, Pb+Zn, As, Sb, Hg which are harmful to smelting and the environment are required to be under the limit. If the limit is exceeded, the fine will be imposed. If the maximum limit is exceeded, the goods will be rejected.

6. Inspection standard

The inspection of copper concentrate is generally based on 500 tons as a sub-batch. At the same time, a representative sample is taken at the weight of the weight, and a moisture determination sample and a quality analysis sample are prepared, and analyzed and determined according to the regulations, and weighted by all the sub-batch inspection results. Average value

For the end result. The quality inspection result of the consignor and the consignee is within the error range, the batch can be handed over smoothly. If the result of both parties exceeds 0.3%, the result of gold exceeds 0.5g/t, and the result of silver exceeds 10~15g/t. Cause arbitration.

The technical conditions and inspection standards for copper concentrates in China are relatively complete. YS/T318-97 is the technical standard of copper concentrate. The standard revise the original fifteen grades of copper concentrate to four grades; the preparation method and moisture content are determined according to GB/T14263-93, according to Work practice, some copper concentrates have a particularly high content of gold and silver. In order to meet the sampling requirements of gold and silver, China Nonferrous Metals Industry Corporation has released the YS/T96-96 standard; in 1983 and 1986, GB3884 "copper was released twice. 15 national standards for chemical analysis of concentrates have been changed to recommended standards, specifying the inspection methods for Cu, Au, Ag, S, As, MgO, F, Pb, Zn, Cd; relevant experts of the State Inspection and Quarantine Bureau After participating in the International Organization for Standardization to discuss copper concentrate inspection methods, the standard for the determination of copper by SN/T0487-95 was issued; in order to meet the needs of the acceptance inspection of imported copper concentrates, it can also be formulated with reference by the State Administration of Inspection and Quarantine and drafted by the Hubei Bureau. Implementation of the "Inspected Specification for Imported Copper Concentrates".

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